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On Lines

So... Elexi postmortem? Yeah, no, not today. Some TSC2 and Unity stuff, though.

Today is all about various foundation and interface stuff I've been working on.


So the thing about Tactical Space Command (and TSC2) is that it lives and dies with line drawing — the game is supposed to have that classic vector Aegis Combat System Harpoon look, after all. The problem is... Unity isn't really interested in lines, not really. I'm not sure that any game engines really do it well. Cocoa does, but then it's not (just) a game engine, and while it does makes pretty lines, it's also honestly a bit slow, and one of the reasons TSC lagged quite a bit in larger scenarios (especially on mobile. There are things that could have been done about it, though, namely avoiding drawing some of the lines in the first place. It's something I probably will do for TSC2 even if I don't need to for purely performance reasons).

Anyway, line drawing. That's kind of a problem. I needed to figure it out, or else TSC2 is done before it begins.

So... Unity does actually have two kinds of lines it supports. The first is via GL, and it's... Problematic. One, it draws directly on the game window on top of everything else (i.e., it's not possible to put it behind UI elements, etc.). The other problem is that it draws one-pixel-wide lines of a pure color with no antialiasing or anything. In other words, it's completely inflexible and looks like shit. It's possible to work around some of these problems with multiple cameras, but that's complex and still looks bad. On the bright side, it's fast. Ugly, but fast. Bottom line, though, it's not good enough.

Unity also supports... Uh, polygons. Thin polygons you can pretend are lines. This actually works okay. You can get antialiasing "for free" by texturing the lines... Even better, you can also get glow effects that way, which is nice. Of course, the "lines" don't do circles (so you have to use a lot of segments), and that has weird artifacts with the glow effects and such (any line "joints" do, but it's more pronounced there). It's... Actually okay, I kind of like the effect of the imperfection. So that's what I'm using for the tactical display. There's still a problem, though: the UI.

Graphics Textbook
To the bookshelf! Not much has changed since 1990, really.

See, I wanted the game to be easily moddable, and I wanted the icons used for ships on the tactical display to be usable in other places (using the same icon "definitions"), including tooltips and buttons. I also wanted them to be able to be parametrically defined so that mods could add new icons. And the polygons "lines"... Don't work that well for that. It's possible to put the polygons in front of the UI elements, but moving them along with panels and such so they're in front of some but behind others (i.e., when a dialog or button is in front of the tactical display or another panel) is a nightmare. I gave up. So, um... I decided to draw my own lines.

And so I did. I did my own scan conversion of lines into "pixel" arrays (with my own antialiasing along the way), converting them to Unity Texture2Ds and made those into UI images and putting them on buttons or wherever I needed them. Which actually gave me a bunch of additional benefits, like animated buttons and use of the same images (and animations) on tooltips. And it works pretty well. But it did take a bit of time to get all of that working (and working efficiently).


Speaking of tooltips, I wanted to do something cool[1] with them. I not only wanted tooltips, I wanted images in the tooltips. And not just that, I also wanted "links" to other tooltips in the tooltips, to explain concepts and show further information and such. Basically, I want the "help" to go away (especially the text infodump crap I had in TSC. It was awful).

Still under construction

I'd actually implemented an early version back when I was still working on Elexi. It seemed to work pretty well, but the truth was it had some hidden problems that didn't become apparent until I really started using them. The first problem was things weren't rendering quite right — images weren't located in quite the right spot, and sometimes the links were wrong, and sometimes the tooltip width was wrong and things like the last word would get cut off or line breaks would occur in unexpected places.

The problem here was kind of obvious... If you want to render arbitrary text, you need to figure out how big the tooltips need to fit the text (and images) properly. Unity (not having a fully mature UI implementation[2]) doesn't really have a way of calculating the rendered text size. You have to actually draw stuff on the screen and measure it. Which I did. And got the sizes of all the characters in my tooltip font, with one little problem... Unity reports advance widths (i.e., how much space a character takes up before the next character starts) in integers, which, ah, isn't nearly precise enough. Some characters sizes were off by as much as half a pixel, and those errors add up. So I measured them myself. Yes, manually. By looking at pixels on the screen.[3] I also programmatically inserted line breaks into the tooltip text when rendering instead of depending on the automatic line breaks to make absolutely sure the layout matched where images and links needed to go.

The other major problem I was having with tooltips is that sometimes they just weren't quite triggering correctly. Sometimes tooltips would get stuck on the screen and you'd have to enter and leave them to clear them. Which is super annoying. Because originally I was depending on exit events, but (wait for it), there was a problem here, too: by the time the tooltip was drawn, the mouse could actually be somewhere else — including outside of the tooltip. And considering that there were tooltips inside of tooltips (meaning that things were already complicated by the fact that some exit events mattered and some didn't), well, tracking down the exact issue took a bit. Ultimately I just did the simple thing and started checking the mouse location every frame in the deepest descendant tooltip and solved the problem that way. Thought that makes for an interesting effect where tooltips "roll up" one per frame when you exit them (which actually looks kind of cool. It's easy enough to fix, but I don't think I will).

There were also some other behavior tweaks, and might still need to do some additional minor polish, but after all that I'm really pretty happy with how the tooltips turned out.

Et Cetera

And that's pretty much what I've been working on (i.e., interface screens, mostly), along with a whole lot of interface optimization as I go along. Because along with the tactical stuff, the game has a lot of... Spreadsheets. Ships, officers, task forces and such need to be organized so they can be sent across the map to crush and destroy, after all. And... Unity is really slow at adding buttons and text and other UI elements. So what you need to do is (instead of creating and destroying things dynamically) is create things and keep them around, hiding them when you're not using them, shuffling them when you resort them, etc., i.e., lots of cacheing of various sorts. If you do that, you can switch things quickly and it's a million times more responsive. 👍

Anyway, been writing some of the internal game logic too (we'll see if I'm clever or foolish with some of the things I've done to make things robust and modular), but mostly just logic skeletons there — generally only a bit more than I need to get the interface up and going. Because stuff's hard to test if you can't see it.

And progress marches on.

[1] For the record, I was partly inspired by the work Jon Shafer is doing on At the Gates, but I'd had similar ideas even before that. I'm a big fan of tooltips.

[2] It's clearly a lower priority than 3D rendering and got completely rewritten recently anyway — the current UI is a whole lot better than it used to be. It's not bad, but not as good as, say, Cocoa, either. Which should surprise no one.

[3] Okay, it was a bit more complicated than that, but yes, it did involve looking at retina pixels to see where things lined up. And yeah, I'm not sure how this is going to hold up cross-platform, either, since I don't know how much Unity offloads font rendering to the local OS. It could be fragile. The font itself won't change, but potentially things like kerning may.


Tags: tsc2, unity

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These are Doug's bloggish thoughts on game development, specifically on the games he's writing for Lensflare, or on Lensflare-related topics more generally. Or whatever he wants to write here, really, but those are the sorts of things to expect. Doug has strong opinions (loosely held) about many things — he could claim that he doesn't speak for Lensflare Games, but that'd be silly considering that (for all practical purposes) he is Lensflare Games. Still (for what little it matters) he's not always wearing that hat here. And yes, this is an actual picture of Doug (okay, not really, but the story behind it is too long to go into right now).

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